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The Institute for Energy Engineering (IIE) of the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), lea...
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THERMAL AREA PROJECTS

The projects for 2008-2010 period, either completed or still in development phase, are detailed in next paragraphs.

Projects developed earlier can be seen in the Activity Report for the appropiate period.

“NxtHPG - Next Generation of Heat Pumps working with Natural fluids”

Funding Entity: European Comission.  EUs FP 7 program (Cooperation) , FP7 nº: 307169.

Head researcher: J.M. Corberán Periodo de ejecución: 2012-2015

Project manager: C. Montagud

NxtHPG project aims at the development of a set of safe, reliable, high efficiency and high capacity heat pumps working with Hydrocarbons and CO².

NxtHPG project is targeted at producing a definitive step forward to the launch of a high capacity heat pump technology employing natural refrigerants, that can become the future solution for heating and cooling on both new and existing buildings.

With full capabilities for integration into the future energy systems of the buildings, those significantly contributes to transformation of the Sector into renewable and efficient systems and to the minimization of EU energy consumption and CO² emissions.

“GROUND-MED: Advanced Ground Source Heat Pump Systems for heating and cooling in Mediterranean climate”

Funding entity: European Comission. EU 7th Framework Programme: FP7 nº 218895

Head researcher: J.M. Corberán Periodo de ejecución: 2009-2013

Project manager: C. Montagud

GROUND-MED project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme, shows the next generation of geothermal heat pumps (GSHP) used in heating and cooling in 8 demonstration sites in southern Europe: Italy France, Romania, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain (Valencia and Barcelona) and Greece.

The main objective of the project is the design, construction, installation, monitoring and evaluation of air conditioning systems working with ground source heat pumps to present a seasonal efficiency "SPF" (Seasonal Performance Factor) for heating and cooling above 5, with a payback time less than 7 years compared to a conventional boiler with natural gas for heating mode and air to water heat pumps for cooling mode, with a high durability of at least 20 years. 

 “ICE - MagnetoCaloric Refrigeration for Efficient Electric Air Conditioning

Funding entity: EU comission 7th  Framework Program

Head researcher: J. M. Corberán Periodo de ejecución: 2010-2014

Project manager: J. Payá

The aim of this European project is to develop an air conditioning system for electric vehicles using a reversible magnetocaloric heat pump. A compact magnetocaloric machine with a COP greater than 5 for a wide range of operating temperatures will be designed and installed.

The proposed system will be implemented in the mini-bus Daily Electric of IVECO -ALTRA. Specifically, the Institute for Energy Engineering in collaboration with INSA develop a dynamic model of the entire vehicle including the magnetocaloric air conditioning system. The simulations will allow the design of the entire system and the optimization of trading strategies to reduce energy consumption.

“Desarrollo de modelos avanzados para el diseño de equipos de refrigeración y aire acondicionado. MADERA”

Funding entity: Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia -D.G. Investigación-

Head researcher: J.M. Corberán Periodo de ejecución: 2005-2008

The objective of this project is to develop and enhance models for the design of refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pumps systems with the best combination among accuracy and speed. The project is focused to refrigeration equipment based on the vapour compression cycle, which are the main part of the equipments. 

The project had two different levels, first of them was focused in the development of advanced mathematical models for each component of the cycle based on 0D or 1D assumptions in order they were capable to predict the performance with high accuracy. Second level was to develop the global model, in order to be able to find the operation point of each component and to predict the unit performance working under any combination of its components and with any refrigerant. 

“Research on the use of propane Danfoss Compressors”

Funding entity: DANFOSS COMMERCIAL COMPRESSORS S.A.

Head researcher: J. Gonzálvez Maciá Periodo de ejecución: 2008

This project consists on the experimental characterization of a set of different capacities of compressors from Danfoss, using polyvinyl-ether (PVE) and polyol-ester (POE) as lubricants and propane (R290) as refrigerant. The compressor´s technologies studied has been hermetic reciprocating compressors and scroll compressors.

The main goal of testing has been the characterization of the compressors in different working conditions, looking for their operating limits using propane as refrigerant. ARI polynomials were made from the results obtained, which provide information about the performance of the compressors in the whole map.

“SHERHPA: Sustainable Heat and Energy Research for Heat Pump Applications”

Funding entity: EU Comission 6th  Framework Program COLL-CT-2004-500229

Head researcher: J.M. Corberán Periodo de ejecución: 2004-2008

This project deals with the development of new heat pumps that are cost-energy efficient and in compliance with the future environmental regulations. The new environmental regulations, concerning greenhouse gases and the protection of the ozone layer, will lead to the phase out of conventional refrigerants. During the first half of the project, components and subsystems (heat exchangers, controllers, ground coupling system, heat recovery…) will be developed, tested and optimised. Afterwards, during the second half of the project, prototypes will be developed and tested in laboratories prior to field tests. 

This project is coordinated by two independent associations (GRETh (Heat Equipment Association) and European Heat Pump Association, EHPA), that have complementary activities; the core group is composed of 19 SMEs from 11 countries, including participants from the newly associated states; and the RTD work will be performed by 10 centers of excellence, from 9 EC and associated countries, in the area of heat pumps, energy and control.

“Tecnologías ecológicas para el transporte urbano: ECOTRANS”

Funding entity: INTERNACIONAL HISPACOLD S.A.

Head researcher: J. Gonzálvez Maciá Periodo de ejecución: 2008-2012

The Project is funded by the Company HISPACOLD in the framework of a CENIT Project funded by the R&D spanish ministry. The pool of companies is led by CAF, the main spanish manufacturer of subway vehicles. Other companies of the pool includes CASTROSUA (main manufacturer of public transport vehicles bodywork) , the main public transport operators and the main Spanish provider of heating and air conditioning equipment for urban buses and coaches (HISPACOLD). 

Main objective of the project is the research in new technologies for the urban transport with the objective to raise the energy efficiency. Particularly, the project part that pertains to HISPACOLD and contracted with the Institute for Energy Engineering has the objective to use new refrigerants with low GWP that enhance the energy efficiency of air conditioning system. Refrigerants selected for the study are R-744 (Carbon dioxide), R-152a, R-290 (propane) and R-1234yf. Project includes a first task of simulations. This study allows to define a complete performance map of the system working with different refrigerants and to perform a first technical-economical evaluation. These theoretical studies are complemented with experiments of the different components working with the refrigerants in order to validate it. 

“Programa de cálculo de intercambiadores de calor enterrados y del algoritmo de acoplamiento a un modelo de simulación energética en régimen transitorio”

Funding entity: Compañía Industrial de Aplicaciones Térmicas S.A.

Head researcher: J. Gonzálvez Maciá Periodo de ejecución: 2009-2010

The overall project objective is the development of a new version of the software which helps the sizing of ground coupled heat exchangers working with CIAT heat pumps and chillers.

This new version of the software includes new features such as the option to select different application temperatures; the definition of ground by stratus; the calculation of double U vertical exchangers or the generation of a report or a spreadsheet with the results of the simulation in order to be used for a ground coupled exchanger model within a transient simulation application of thermal systems and buildings.

“REFNAT: Estudio de Optimización de Equipos Frigoríficos y de Aire Acondicionado para su Funcionamiento con Refrigerantes Naturales Hidrocarburos”

Funding entity: MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN Y CIENCIA.

Head researcher: J. M. Corberán Periodo de ejecución: 2009-2012

The main objective of this project is first to get a better knowledge about the behaviour of hydrocarbons (HCs) working as refrigerants in refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump equipment and then, to synthesise a set of design criteria in order to be able to optimise their design and reach the highest efficiency with the minimum refrigerant charge.

The project will first concentrate on the study of the particular characteristics of HCs as refrigerants and their main differences with conventional refrigerants. Then, the project will concentrate on the study of the behaviour of the hydrocarbon as refrigerant, first at component level (compressor, evaporator, condenser and expansion valve) and then at the unit level (optimal subcooling and superheating, and liquid-suction heat exchanger). Finally, a study targeting the optimisation of components and equipment for the use of HCs refrigerants will be carried out. The project has a strong experimental.

“Diseño asistido por ordenador de equipos de refrigeración y bomba de calor:  TRACE-DAOER“

Funding entity: MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN Y CIENCIA. TRA2009_0062

Head researcher: J.M. Corberán Periodo de ejecución: 2010-2012

The project is focused to companies knowledge transfer from the University, specifically in the refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump modelling by the way of a software to main companies of the sector in Spain.

The present project has the objective the final adjustment of the models to the typical conditions of the refrigeration equipment used by the companies participating in the project. The companies will use the software to calculate its equipment and to compare with experimental results. These results will allow generating a database of real applications. About the software, the first objective is to develop an object oriented internal structure that will allow the addition of new models and also the calculation on any topology of components, the second objective is the development of a friendly graphical user interface in order to configure the software as professional.

“TOPMACS: Thermally Operated Mobile Air Conditioning Systems”

Funding entity: EU 6th Framework Program TST4- CT-2005-012471

Head researcher: J.M. Corberán Periodo de ejecución: 2005-2008

The goal of this project is to develop mobile air conditioning systems with a reduced impact on the environment, both direct and indirect. Two new technologies will be explored: Metal Hydride, either powered by waste heat or by electric energy, and Sorption Cooling, powered by waste heat. Neither of these technologies uses HCFC’s, and so they do not have a direct impact on GWP. The key point is to develop systems that will have also lower indirect impact with respect to state of the art of mobile air conditioning systems. Both technologies have the potential for pre-cooling and pre-warming of the vehicle cabin.

The objective is to set up at least two prototypes: one for  trucks and another for passenger cars. Benefits for the environment will be quantified by means of calculations and tests in a climatic chamber and on the road. A methodology to evaluate at the same time thermal comfort and the associated energy performance will be developed.

“Modine's Software Development Agreement”

Funding entity: Modine Manufacturing Company (Commercial Hva&R Division)

Head researcher: J. Gonzálvez Maciá Periodo de ejecución: 2004-2011

This contract signed with MODINE Company begun in the year 2004 with the objective to produce a software capable to simulate vapour compression systems working with the products manufactured by MODINE, tube and fins and microchannel condensers/evaporators. MODINE offer this software to its customert with the aim of introducing the microchannel technology in the refrigeration and air conditioning market. This contract is actualized each year being the IIE researchers responsible of the maintenance and upgrade of the software.

“Diseño de redes de distribución y almacenamiento de energía térmica”

Funding entity: ACCIONA ENERGIA SOLAR S.A.

Head researchers: J.M. Corberán, R. Royo Pastor Periodo de ejecución: 2007-2008

Project manager: J. Payá

Project objective is developing a global model for thermal storage and distribution facilities that are studied in the project. This data is used to simulate its operation and assists in its design for a proper and optimised operation.

“Modelado y simulación del sistema combinado de producción, distribución y consumo de energía de un edificio CETICA”

Funding entity: ACCIONA ENERGIA SOLAR S.A.

Head researcher: J.M. Corberán Periodo de ejecución: 2007 - 2008 

Project manager: J. Payá

The main objectives of this Project are the study and simulation of the Energy behaviour of different building types: offices, apartment houses and miscellaneous use, utilizing the TRNsys code. With this first characterization, it is possible to analyze the main causes of heat losses for winter season, or the effect of different factors in summer conditions as solar load. In posterior phases, different design improvement will be proposed to reduce energy consumption, and several climatization options will be analysed.

“Evaluación de diferentes alternativas de generación/distribución y utilización de energía para casos tipo de invernaderos y polígonos de invernaderos en el proyecto mediodía y edificios tipo CETICA”

Funding entity: ACCIONA

Head researcher: R. Royo Pastor Periodo de ejecución: 2008 - 2009

Project manager: J. Payá

The fundamental objective is the simulation and evaluation of complex systems to provide energy for small groups of greenhouses at the frame of the MEDIODÍA Project and buildings type CETICA . Enclosed you will find the main necessary tasks to provide this objective: Modelling of greenhouses and systems, of heat and cold generation equipment, of heat dissipation systems, and of cold/heat energy storing; Definition of typical cases and their evaluation of consumptions; Definition  and evaluation of different alternatives of generation/distribution and use for the typical defined cases; and Predesign of equipment and systems to provide the year consumption. Evaluation of the year energy consumption and its financial investment.

“Apoyo técnico en proyectos de sistemas energéticos”

Funding entity: ASSYCE INGENIEROS

Head researcher: R. Royo Pastor Periodo de ejecución: 2010-2011

1. Model of a thermal solar installation of a big hospital by means of the use of the TRNsys software. The installation was fully instrumented, with the availability of flow meters at the main systems. The objectives of the project are the analysis of the basic data and the performing ratios of the actual installation, the adjusting of a TRNsys model with the main subsystems of the installation, the research of possible problems of the actual installation, the generation of proposals for the improvement of the installation, the research of possible control routines making possible to provide larger efficiencies ratios, and, last, but not least, implementing the variations at the installation and the control model. Modeling results were fully satisfactory. From these, the optimization of the real installation was finally carried out.

2. Model and optimization with TRNsys software of a real Passivhaus building prototype. With this model, the final optimization of the building prototype was fully developed.

“Optimización, investigación y desarrollo de un deshumidificador de alta temperatura”

“Desarrollo y optimización de secadora de condensación con sistema de bomba de calor”

“Uso de nuevos refrigerantes con bajo índice GWP y mejora de eficiencias en deshumidificadores de alta temperatura”

Funding entity: BSH ELECTRODOMESTICOS ESPAÑA S.A.

Head researcher: J. Gonzálvez Maciá Periodo de ejecución: 2007 - 2010

These projects are part of a general R&D agreement between the Institute for Energy Engineering and the company BSH at the Estella Factory for the development of Heat Pump Assisted Condensation Domestic Dryers. A dehumidifier assisted by a single stage vapour compression cycle has been developed. This new design of dehumidifier can reduce at about one third the energy consumption compared with a conventional design.

The main objective during these years was to improve the energy efficiency of the home appliance working in different fields as redesign of the heat exchangers, use of new refrigerants, new control algorithms, … Result of the collaboration is the market release of different models that are the best in energy efficiency. The development projects are assisted with a dryer model developed at the IIE. 

“AQUASOLVER. Desarrollo de una bomba de calor reversible agua-aire-agua para la producción simultánea de agua caliente y fría adaptable a la demanda”

Funding entity: CIATESA.

Head researcher: J. Gonzálvez Maciá Periodo de ejecución: 2008-2009

This project has consisted of the design, construction and adjustment of the operation parameters of an experimental heat pump prototype denominated "water-air-water system" capable of producing hot and cold water simultaneously according to demand. This project was carried out in collaboration with CIAT, one of the most important Spanish companies dedicated to manufacture of A/C equipments.

The system design involved the use of two plate heat exchangers to produce hot and chilled water (four-pipe system) and a fin and tube heat exchanger, which alternates with the plate heat exchangers as heat source or sink, depending on the mode of operation (heating / cooling) in order to fulfill the required demand.

“Sistemas de inspección multifuncionales de rápido despliegue basados en robots. Aplicación de la Termografía Infrarroja a la inspección de materiales especiales”

Funding entity: TECNATOM

Head researcher: R. Royo Pastor Periodo de ejecución: 2009-2010

By a tests campaign, the use of the infrared thermography as Non Destructive Technique (NDT) has been analyzed. It has been applied at pieces and materials habitually used for the company TECNATOM. 

The technique seems perfect for different industrial fields, as blades for wind mills and photovoltaic panels, as new technology examples. For the first analyses of the pieces is one of the best nondestructive test method: once the failure is detected in a fast way from thermography, it is time for the use of additional techniques.

“I+D y asistencia a la fabricación de motores diesel y gasolina de Renault España”

Funding entity: RENAULT ESPAÑA

Head researcher: R. Royo Pastor Periodo de ejecución: 2008-2011

The collaboration between UPV and Renault Spain began with a study of the initial version of the K7M engine in September, 1993. In 2008-2010 period works over the K7M spark engine have been done. A swirl coefficient of the cylinder heads of K9K engine versions Euro III, Euro IV, step 1, 2 and Euro V has been characterized.

The experimental results from engine test bench of the breaking of the outlet pipe from the compressor in diesel engines have been analyzed. Also a project of a motor K9K installation in Universidad de Cartagena has been guided.

Specific software to process experimental data has been designed. The software is very easy to use and it will allow the constitution of a data base very solid for future tests. Thermal differences between “fast” and “normal” heating plugs for diesel engines have been analyzed. The thermocouples mounted at these heating plugs by the use of the infrared thermography have been calibrated, and a modeling with ENGINE CARD of the Variable Valve timing of the F4R gasoline engine (VVT).

“Caracterización experimental y modelado de materiales PCM para almacenamiento latente de energía térmica”

Funding entity: ACCIONA INFRAESTRUCTURAS

Head researcher: R. Royo  Periodo de ejecución: 2010-2011

Project manager: J. Payá

The objective of this project is experimental and theoretical analysis of systems with latent thermal energy storage.

First, an experimental installation to measure different thermal energy storage system with a capacity between 10 and 170 kWh will be designed and constructed. Experimentally, two storage systems will be characterized. The first one will have a capacity of 170 kWh and will use ice / water as phase change material. The second system will have a capacity of about 15 kWh and it will be designed to analyze the charge / discharge with different materials in a temperature range of 0 ºC to 100 ºC. Parallel to the experimental work, theoretical models of the charge / discharge at each phase change material will be developed. The models allow to simulate the behavior of the store and identify ideal scenarios for the application of such storage systems.

“Modelado del comportamiento de intercambiadores de calor enterrados y validación experimental”

Funding entity: CONSELLERIA DE EMPRESA, UNIVERSIDAD Y CIENCIA

Head researcher: Montero Reguera, Álvaro  Periodo de ejecución: 2007-2008

The works involved in this project are the development of mathematical models in order to predict the behavior of borehole heat exchangers and its experimental validation. These models intend to include new physical phenomena such as the influence of flows of underground water on the energy efficiency of the device or the existence of different ground properties at different depths.

“Modelado y simulación de sistemas energéticos complejos”

Funding entity: Ministerio de Educación y ciencia –D.G. Investigación.

Head researcher: Montero Reguera, Álvaro    Periodo de ejecución: 2006-2008

The project aims to study the physical systems of application of energy engineering, inside the context of the improvement of the energy efficiency in buildings. The work focuses on developing the use of the soil as heat store and in the optimization of the transfer of energy in the building. One of the principal aims of this investigation is to find one systematic approach in the optimization of the energy efficiency in thermal complex systems, for which there are designed strategies of control that allow to diminish the consumption of energy and in turn supporting the requirements of thermal comfort.

“Research on reliability of propane scroll compressors”

Funding entity:  EMERSON Climate Technologies GMBH

Head researcher:  J. Gonzálvez Maciá     Periodo de ejecución: 2010-2011

“Modelado, simulación y validación experimental de la transferencia de calor en el entorno de la edificación”

Funding organism:  Ministerio de Educación

Head researcher:  A. Montero  Reguera     Periodo de ejecución: 2009-2010

“Engineered Modular Bacterial Photoproduction of Hydrogen”

Funding organism: Comisión de las Comunidades Europeas, NEST Pathfinder, 6 Framework Programme

Head researchers:  J. F. Urchueguía / Pedro Fdez. de Córdoba Periodo de ejecución: 2007-2010

“Colaboración proyecto rehabilitación energética de edificios docentes en Andalucía. REDUCA.”

Funding entity:  ACCIONA Infraestructuras SA

Head researcher:  R. Royo Pastor     Periodo de ejecución: 2009-2012

“Multiplicación de esfuerzos para el desarrollo, innovación, optimización y diseño de invernaderos avanzados. MEDIODÍA.”

Funding entity:  ACCIONA Instalaciones SA

Head researcher:  J.M. Corberán     Periodo de ejecución: 2010

Project manager: J. Payá

“Simulación y evaluación de sistemas complejos de producción de energía, frío y calor a escala de pequeño núcleo de población o grupo de edificios dentro del concepto de proyecto CETICA”

Funding entity:  ACCIONA Instalaciones SA

Head researcher:  J.M. Corberán     Periodo de ejecución: 2009-2010

Project manager: J. Payá

“Simulación y evaluación de sistemas complejos de producción de energía, frío y calor a escala de pequeños polígonos de invernaderos en el concepto del proyecto MEDIODÍA”

Funding entity:  ACCIONA Instalaciones SA

Head researcher:  J.M. Corberán   Periodo de ejecución: 2009-2010

Project manager: J. Payá

“Evaluación de diferentes alternativas de generación /distribución y utilización de energía para casos de invernaderos y polígonos de invernaderos (MEDIODÍA)”

Funding entity:  ACCIONA Energía Solar SA

Head researcher:  J.M. Corberán   Periodo de ejecución: 2008-2009

Project manager: J. Payá

“TARGET: Tecnologías inteligentes y medioambientales sostenibles para la generación de estructuras en materiales compuestos.”

Funding entity:  Tecnatom SA

Head researcher: R. Royo Pastor  Periodo de ejecución: 2010-2014

“Diseño asistido por ordenador de equipos de refrigeración y bomba de calor.”

Funding entity:  Saunier-Duval Clima SA

Head researcher:  J.M. Corberán   Periodo de ejecución: 2010-2012

“BIOMODULARH2: Engineered modular bacterial hydrogen photoproduction of hydrogen.”

Funding entity:  Generalitat Valenciana

Head researcher:  J. Urchueguía   Periodo de ejecución: 2007-2010

“Desarrollo de un sistema de climatización híbrido de alta eficiencia energética mediante la combinación de un sistema geotérmico y un sistema de aire que optimice los costes de implantación.”

Funding entity:  Ministerio de Industria, Turismo y Comercio

Head researcher:  A. Montero Reguera   Periodo de ejecución: 2008-2009

“Modelado, simulación y validación experimental de la transferencia de calor en el entorno de la edificación.”

Funding entity:  Generalitat Valenciana

Head researcher:  A. Montero Reguera   Periodo de ejecución: 2010-2011