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ELECTRICITY SYSTEMS AND MARKETS AREA

IIE’s activities in the ELECTRICAL AREA are divided into two main research lines: New Power Applications and Design of Electric Engineering, both centred on systems of generation, transmission, distribution and management and efficient consumption of electric power.

1. ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBILITY OF PARTICIPATION OF DEMAND RESOURCES IN THE ELECTRICITY MARKETS.

Work in this topic has been focussed on the identification of  the growing posibilities for participation of the electrical demand in the market. Considering the possibility of consumers demand reduction as well as the modification in their load curve, the potential of purchase and sale contract of energy in the different electric markets as well as the participation through program operated by the aggregators or other intermediaries have been investigated. Two types of studies have been addressed:

a) Analysis of the historical evolution of prices in the markets of deviations, balance, daily, interdaily and complementary services, to estimate a possible participation on load reduction. A wide catalog of products to facilitate the participation of the demand in the markets has been deduced from these studies, together with an evaluation of the applicability of someone of these products in the case of Spain.

b) Study of the interative behaviour of the market agents in front of different mechanisms of active participation of electric power demand. This has been addresed in a controled experimentation laboratory under a dynamic simulated environment of economical and technological conditions interacting in the short and medium term, with similar characteristics to those of the Spanish energy market. The final objective of these studies is the evaluation of the effectiveness of the inversion signals in resources of demand response.

2. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FLEXIBLE SYSTEMS FOR ENERGY SUPPLY.

The main goal of this area is to demonstrate that Demand Response in the industrial, commercial and residential sectors can provide assets for ancillary services (frequency and voltage control, reserve, etc.) in a competition with the generators that, traditionally, have been the only agents supplying this service). 

A demonstration EC project is in progress in this area (Demand Response in the Industrial Production, DRIP) in four industries in Europe (paper and meat processing sectors) to explore the validity of this technology

3. RISK MANAGEMENT IN ELECTRICITY MARKETS

Management of risks in the electricity markets represents a novel field with growing importance. Participants in the market require mechanisms to protect them in front of price instabilities. Some tools for risk coverage, currently used in other markets, such as the financial ones, are the financial by-products (options, future, etc.). Studies are in progress to deduce models for prices and for analysis and valorization of electricity by-products to manage the risk of the agents when taking part in the energy market.

4. IMPACT FROM WIND GENERATORS ON THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM.

The activities of this area have as fundamental objective the evaluation of the impact of wind generators both in connected and isolated systems. So, two different aspects have been studied: on the one hand, the impact on the voltage and current intensity waveforms in the distribution network by using a harmonic load flux technique. The developed methodology has been incorporated into a computer code of the UPV Department for System Engineering and Automatics that analyzes the general impact of the wind generators in the network. On the other hand, verification of the stability in isolated systems due to the operation of wind generators has been analysed. Results have been applied to the specific case of a system of the company G.O.C. to be installed in Vietnam.

5. SECURITY OF ELECTRICITY SUPPLY IN LIBERALIZED MARKETS

This research line is oriented to the identification of viable economic signals that animate efficient inversions in the generation sector in order to guarantee in the long term the supply of electricity in liberalized markets. These studies should provide a software tool, based on dynamic simulation, for the creation of desirable and viable scenarios for the security of electricity supply in the long term, so it can de possible to establish in an anticipated and low cost way the effectiveness of the signals that it makes viable those scenarios.

6. IMPACT OF THE MASSIVE INTEGRATION OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN NETWORKS FOR TRANSPORT AND DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC ENERGY.

Works carried out in this activity have been developed in the framework of European Projects, other public institutions and also with the private sector. These have the aim to develop research and innovation topics in order to make the massive integration of electric vehicles easier in accordance with the plans developed by the European Commission (EC). EC foresees the fully establishment of the use of such type of vehicles in 2050.

Specifically, the topics discussed within the group refer to the design and reinforcement needed in the electricity networks, in order to prevent a stable operation.

7. ELECTRICITY DEMAND SEGMENTATION

The goal of this project is to generate a segmentation of the energy consumers in the entire European Union. This segmentation is based on an energy consumption viewpoint, but taking also into account the activities developed by the consumers. The methodologies traditionally used so far by the companies in the sector or by statistics institutes have been analyzed. These segmentations, exclusively based on economical activities, are not well fitted for this energy analysis.  In this sense the activities in this work are oriented to a more detailed split than the traditional segmentations trying to reflect the different energy necessities of each segment.  In conclusion, a novel segmentation has been produced that it considers the activities of the consumer and its energy final uses.

8. ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF THE CONSUMER POTENTIAL FOR DISTRIBUTED RESOURCES

The fundamental objective of this line of investigation is the evaluation of the application of distributed energy resources for a individual consumer. Work is centred in the energy characterization of the consumers according to their processes and the flexibility of these as well as their economic evaluation. This requires the evaluation of the energy demand and the economical activity characteristics of the customer, from the viewpoint of the possibility of implantation of resources distributed and the creation of demand offers. As part of this evaluation, it was necessary to develop models that simulate the energy behaviour of the existent processes in the consumers. 

These studies have provided the development of a methodology to establish categories of consumers according to their potential to install distributed energy resources or modifications of the load. The installation of an equipment of distributed generation in the UPV campus has been also considered into this project.